خبراء يؤكدون دور مواقع التواصل الإجتماعي في نشر الفكر المتطرف

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أكد المشاركون في الندوة الدولية حول “شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي والحريات: تحديات المنطقة المغاربية”و التي احتضنتها منطقة الحمامات التونسية على مدى يومين، على أهمية تحديد المفاهيم العلمية وعلاقتها بالمجال المهني على مستوى الإعلام والدفاع عن حقوق الإنسان فيما يهم بقضايا التطرف العنيف والتمييز ضد النساء وحريات التعبير والأخبار الكاذبة ، ودعوا الى  ضرورة تبادل التجارب بين مختلف الدول الغربية وفي شمال إفريقيا والشرق الأوسط،

وتوقف  المؤتمر الذي  نظمه المركز الدولي للصحافة والإعلام التابع لجامعة أوسلو للعلوم بالنرويج ومركز المرأة العربية للتدريب والأبحاث بتونس، وأختتم أول أمس الأربعاء ، عند قضايا هامة ذات صلة بمواقع التواصل الاجتماعي وواقعها في دول المنطقة، من قبيل “الجهاد الالكتروني” و”البروباغاندا” و”الأخبار الكاذبة” و”تأثير الحركات التغييرية على السياسات العامة”.

وقالت إيليزابيث أيدي، رئيسة المركز الدولي للصحافة والإعلام بالنرويج،  إن شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي “سهلت أيضا التجنيد لعديد من الحروب، وكل حرب تطرح معها سؤال: ما هي الأطروحة التي ستربح الرهان؟”، لتشير إلى أنه “في وقت تهم الحكومات إلى إيجاد طرق لحجب شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي فإن الناس يجدون طرقا أخرى لتجاوز هذا الغلق”.

وبيّنت أيدي أن مواقع التواصل الإجتماعي  أضحت “منصة لنشر الآراء السيئة التي تضر بكثير الأشخاص ممن يعبرون عن آرائهم بشكل حر”، مضيفة أن هناك أشخاصا عبروا عن آرائهم السياسية بشكل حر “فتعرضوا لتهديدات دفعتهم إلى حذف تدويناتهم”، لتورد أن هذا الوضع دفع وكالات الأمن الأمريكية إلى كثير من الرقابة على عمالقة الفضاء الإلكتروني، مثل غوغل وفيسبوك.

وفي هذا السياق ، أوضح  محمد الأصفر، الأستاذ بجامعة الإعلام الليبية، أن هناك انتشارا واسعا لخطاب الكراهية والعنف والاستغلال للهجرة غير الشرعية على مستوى وسائل التواصل الاجتماعي في النطاق الليبي، “تأثير ذلك كان واضحا من خلال ارتفاع استهداف الصحافيين والمدونين بلغت درجة الاغتيال، مشيرا الى إن “عدم الاستقرار السياسي والأمني بالبلاد ساهم في نشر الفتن والفوضى وأيضا تحقيق مكاسب سياسية واقتصادية”.

من جانبه ،  إعتبر إبراهيم مخلص، الصحافي والباحث المغربي،أن ما يشجع على الأنباء غير الصحيحة في وسائل الإعلام هو “تسابق الأخيرة نحو البحث عن قراء ونقرات أكثر”، و”غياب الأخلاق المهنية والتكوين اللازم للصحافيين” و”عدم وجود إطار قانوني” وأيضا “رغبة السلطات العمومية في إحصاء ومعرفة توجه الٍرأي العام حيال قضية ما”.

أما  الصحافي المغربي طارق بنهدا، فتوقف عند أهمية الحرب الالكترونية على التطرف العنيف من خلال تحليل الخطاب الإعلامي للتنظيمات المتطرفة، خاصة تنظيم “داعش” الذي اعتمد  على فكرة “اغتصاب الحشود”، من المنظور السوسيولوجي للتاثير على الجماهير، مشيرا إلى أن هناك حربا نفسية يقودها التنظيم “لا تسقط قتلى، بل ضحايا معنويين”.

وأردف بنهدا أن التنظيمات المتطرفة، تستغل أيضا ما يسمى ب”الويب المظلم”، التي تبقى “مواقع غير مرئية على محركات البحث وتستغل في التجارة غير الشرعية مثل تبييض الأموال وبيع الأسلحة والمخدرات”، مشيرا إلى أن خطر الإٍرهاب الالكتروني دفع عددا من دول إلى تجهيز “جيش احتياطي الكتروني يضم خبراء وهاكرز محترفين”، بجانب اعتماد قوانين مكافحة للإرهاب وصلاحيات واسعة لأجهزة المخابرات “للتجسس على المكالمات الهاتفية وزرع برامج تجسس في الحواسيب ومراقبة البريد الإلكتروني والحسابات البنكية”.

وإتهم الصحفي النرويجي افشين إسمالي بعض الفضائيات العربية بدعم الإرهاب مستعرضا  الحضور الإعلامي للتنظيمات المتطرفة، من القاعدة إلى “داعش”، حيث أكد  أن بعض القنوات الفضائية العربية ساهمت في إبراز عدد من قادة هذه التنظيمات، من خلال بث أشرطتها وإجراء حوارات إعلامية معهم، فيما قال إن هدف هذه الكيانات المتطرفة إعلاميا كان “صناعة مجتمع عالمي للتطرف العنيف”.

وأضاف إسمالي أن مواقع التواصل الإجتماعي  كانت دوما هدفا للتنظيمات الإرهابية  من أجل “التدريب على الأسلحة، والتجنيد، ونقل الأخبار والحياة اليومية للمقاتلين وعائلاتهم ونشر التعاليم الدينية”، على أن الهدف أيضا كان “تدجين جيل جديد من خلال التأثير عليه”، فيما أشار إلى أن تطرف التنظيمات بلغ درجة “احتكار مصالح الاتصالات في المناطق التي يسطرون عليها وتدميرها في بعض الأحيان”.

ويرى مخلص ضرورة مساعدة الصحافيين على الولوج السلس للمعلومة، كوسيلة للقضاء على “الأخبار الكاذبة”، بجانب “وقف الطريق على ممتهني الصحافة من غير المهنيين”، و”تطوير آليات التتبع على المواقع الإخبارية”، فيما يشدد على أن هناك انتظارات من الجسم الصحفي المغربي للمجلس الوطني للصحافة “الذي سيكون حاسما في تعزيز أخلاقيات الصحافة، خاصة على مستوى الصحافة المكتوبة والالكترونية”.

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